Integrated Pest Management

MEALYBUG

HEMIPTERA: PSEUDOCOCCIDAE: Planococcus citri (Risso)

Top Check Your Diagnosis Data Sheet Natural Enemies Management
    DAMAGE SYMPTOMS   MONITOR
    LIFE CYCLE   ECONOMIC THRESHOLD
    SEASONAL CYCLE   CONTROL OPTIONS
        CHECK POINTS

Identification

Photo

Nipaecoccus viridis Karoo thorn mealybug / spherical mealybug (name in Australia)
Paracoccus burnae oleander mealybug
Planococcus citri citrus mealybug
Ferrisia virgata striped mealybug
Pseudococcus calceolariae citrofillus mealybug
Pseudococcus longispinus longtailed mealybug

 

Check Your Diagnosis

  • Soft bodied, oval shaped insects

  • Covered in powdery, white mealy wax

  • Extended filaments around the body

  • 3-4mm

Photo

Nipaecoccus viridis
  • Purple body fluid
  • Purple eggs and crawlers
  • Cause malformed fruit
  • Round and wooly egg sac
  • Stringy threads, if pulled

Paracoccus burnae

  • Eggs purple – brown
  • Causes leaf malformation
  • 17 pairs filaments
  • tail filament longer than rest

Planococcus citri

  • Eggs and nymphs yellow
  • Causes less severe damage to leaves
  • 18 pairs of filaments
  • Gradual increase in length of filaments to tail filaments
  • One dorsal stripe

Ferrisia virgata

  • No body fluid
  • Hairy
  • Long filaments
  • Sub dorsal spots forming 2 stripes

Pseudococcus calceolariae

  • Dark red body fluid
  • Four longitudinal, darker lines on the top part of the body
  • Four longish tail filament

Pseudococcus longispinus

  • Yellow body fluid
  • tail filaments as long as the body (distinguishing characteristic)
  • side filaments are longer than in other species
 

 

Top Check Your Diagnosis Data Sheet Natural Enemies Management
    DAMAGE SYMPTOMS   MONITOR
    LIFE CYCLE   ECONOMIC THRESHOLD
    SEASONAL CYCLE   CONTROL OPTIONS
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Data Sheet

Damage Symptoms

on fruit

PHOTO

on leaves

Photo

on blossom

Photo

on twigs

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1. On Fruit

Feeding damage Want to know more?
  • Malformation of fruit directly after fruit set – lumpy growth formations at stem end
  • Higher % fruit drop
  • Causes sooty mould
  • Can cause Alternaria before and after harvest
  • Phytosanitary pest = that means they cause decay and are FORBIDDEN in importing market
  • Sooty mould attracts ants and carob moth (if present)

2. On Leaves

Feeding damage Want to know more?
  • Feeding damage to leaves causes malformation
  • Citrus mealybug causes extensive leaf curling
 

3. On Blossoms

NONE

4. On Twigs

Feeding damage Want to know more?
  • Visible on twigs early in spring
  • Look on the framework of trees for mealybugs that overwintered in citrus trees
 

Life Cycle

Drawing of life cycle
Gradual metamorphosis: the nymphs look like adults, only smaller    
r-strategist:
  • high reproduction (infestation levels rise quickly)
  • low survival (can easily be killed)
  • rebound quickly ( after spraying pest levels can rise fast if all predators are killed)
   
  • LIFE CYCLE = 235°Days
  • 3 – 6 weeks

Sucking mouthparts = Feed on plantsap

Mealybugs excreate honeydew. This attracts ants

   
Eggs Egg sac can have up to 500 eggs
Eggs are purple= karoo thorn/spherical mealybug
Or yellow = citrus mealybug
Brown purple = oleander mealybug
 
Nymphs Crawlers are very mobile
Male nymph evolves into a pupa
 
Adult Males have wings
Females are sedentary
 

Seasonal Cycle in Vaalharts

Graph

 
In winter the mealybug shelter in cracks in the branches or tree trunk
In spring the crawlers move towards the fruit
  • Multivoltine: several generations per year

 

Top Check Your Diagnosis Data Sheet Natural Enemies Management
    DAMAGE SYMPTOMS   MONITOR
    LIFE CYCLE   ECONOMIC THRESHOLD
    SEASONAL CYCLE   CONTROL OPTIONS
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Natural Enemies

Photo Photo Photo Photo

 

 

Top Check Your Diagnosis Data Sheet Natural Enemies Management
    DAMAGE SYMPTOMS   MONITOR
    LIFE CYCLE   ECONOMIC THRESHOLD
    SEASONAL CYCLE   CONTROL OPTIONS
        CHECK POINTS

Management

 
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