Integrated Pest Management

Leafminer
LEPIDOPTERA: GRACILLARIIDAE : Phyllocnistis citrella

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Identification

Photo

Order: butterflies and moths

Pest life stage: the larvae

Attacks: the leaves

 

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  • Serpentine grooves on underside of leaf

  • Leaves seem to curl outwards

Photo

 

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    LIFE CYCLE   ECONOMIC THRESHOLD
    SEASONAL CYCLE   CONTROL OPTIONS
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Data Sheet

Damage Symptoms

on fruit

PHOTO

on leaves

Photo

on blossom

Photo

on twigs

Photo

1. On Fruit

NONE

2. On Leaves

Feeding damage

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  • Serpentine grooves under epidermis

  • Ventrally on the leaf

  • Mines through epidermis to feed on cell sap

Can inhibit photosynthesis because of the reduction in leaf surfaces, thus reducing tree vigour

3. On Blossoms

NONE

4. On Twigs

Feeding damage

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In severe infestations the leafminer bores under the epidermis of young twigs

 

Life Cycle

Drawing of life cycle

K-strategist

  • Reproduce slowly

  • Resilient in adverse conditions

  • Compete effectively for environmental resources, thus high survival rate

   

Adult

White moth, 2 mm long
Fringed wings
Active in morning
Egg deposit at night

 

Egg

single egg on underside of leaf

 

Larvae

egg hatch into larvae
They bore through epidermis to feed on cell sap

 

Pupa

pupate at the edge of the leaf

 

Seasonal Cycle in Vaalharts

If leafminer is left untreated a natural predation / parasitism establish after a season or two.

Graph

  • Multivoltine: several generations per year

  • Autumn pest

 

Top Check Your Diagnosis Data Sheet Natural Enemies Management
    DAMAGE SYMPTOMS   MONITOR
    LIFE CYCLE   ECONOMIC THRESHOLD
    SEASONAL CYCLE   CONTROL OPTIONS
        CHECK POINTS

 

Natural Enemies

Photo Photo Photo Photo

 

 

Top Check Your Diagnosis Data Sheet Natural Enemies Management
    DAMAGE SYMPTOMS   MONITOR
    LIFE CYCLE   ECONOMIC THRESHOLD
    SEASONAL CYCLE   CONTROL OPTIONS
        CHECK POINTS

Management

 
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