Integrated Pest Management

green leafhopper
HEMIPTERA: CICADELLIDAE: Empoasca distinguenda

Top Check Your Diagnosis Data Sheet Natural Enemies Management
    DAMAGE SYMPTOMS   MONITOR
    LIFE CYCLE   ECONOMIC THRESHOLD
    SEASONAL CYCLE   CONTROL OPTIONS
        CHECK POINTS

Identification

Photo

 

Check Your Diagnosis

  • light green small insect

  • wings can fly

  • when disturbed, insect react in crablike movements

  • shy insect will scribble away behind leaves or fruit

Photo

 

Top Check Your Diagnosis Data Sheet Natural Enemies Management
    DAMAGE SYMPTOMS   MONITOR
    LIFE CYCLE   ECONOMIC THRESHOLD
    SEASONAL CYCLE   CONTROL OPTIONS
        CHECK POINTS

 

Data Sheet

Damage Symptoms

on fruit

PHOTO

on leaves

Photo

on blossom

Photo

on twigs

Photo

1. On Fruit

Feeding damage Want to know more?
  • Oleocellosis like blemishes on the fruit and young leaves
  • Damage in autumn when fruit stars coloring
  • Damage darkens to harvest
Move quickly with typical sideways movements to the underside of the fruit or leaves

2. On Leaves

Feeding damage Want to know more?
  • Feeding damage on citrus foliage causing a wrinkled appearance with irregular chlorotic areas along the outer margins of the leaf
 

3. On Blossoms

NONE

4. On Twigs

NONE

Life Cycle

Drawing of life cycle
Plant feeders

Pierce sucking mouthparts

Gradual metamorphosis: Nymphs look like adults

   
r-strategist
  • high reproduction (infestation levels rise quickly)
  • low survival (can easily be killed)
  • rebound quickly ( after spraying pest levels can rise fast if all predators are killed)
   
Eggs Laid singly along the main vein of leaves  
Nymphs Five nymphal stages

On citrus foliage causing a wrinkled appearance with irregular chlorotic areas along the outer margins of the leaf

 
Adults Light green in color

Move quickly with typical sideways movements to the underside of the fruit or leaves

 

Seasonal Cycle in Vaalharts

Graph
Adult stages is present in the citrus tree throughout the year

Rapid build up of pest population

Suspected that populations are blown in from other crops

  • Multivoltine: several generations per year

 

Top Check Your Diagnosis Data Sheet Natural Enemies Management
    DAMAGE SYMPTOMS   MONITOR
    LIFE CYCLE   ECONOMIC THRESHOLD
    SEASONAL CYCLE   CONTROL OPTIONS
        CHECK POINTS

 

Natural Enemies

Photo Photo Photo Photo

 

 

Top Check Your Diagnosis Data Sheet Natural Enemies Management
    DAMAGE SYMPTOMS   MONITOR
    LIFE CYCLE   ECONOMIC THRESHOLD
    SEASONAL CYCLE   CONTROL OPTIONS
        CHECK POINTS

Management

 
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