Integrated Pest Management

COTTON CUSHIONY SCALE
HEMIPTERA: MARGARODIDAE : Icerya purchasi

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    LIFE CYCLE   ECONOMIC THRESHOLD
    SEASONAL CYCLE   CONTROL OPTIONS
        CHECK POINTS

Identification

Photo

 

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  • Large, white, fluted egg sac

  • Egg sac has visible grooves

  • Usually seen on twigs

Photo

 

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    DAMAGE SYMPTOMS   MONITOR
    LIFE CYCLE   ECONOMIC THRESHOLD
    SEASONAL CYCLE   CONTROL OPTIONS
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Data Sheet

Damage Symptoms

on fruit

PHOTO

on leaves

Photo

on blossom

Photo

on twigs

Photo

1. On Fruit

Feeding damage Want to know more?
  • Adults seldom on fruit
  • Severe infestations lead to sooty mould
  • and fruit drop
 

2. On Leaves

Feeding damage Want to know more?
  • Crawlers infest leaves and twigs
  • Formation of sooty mould
  • Attracts ants
 

3. On Blossoms

Feeding damage Want to know more?
   

4. On Twigs

Feeding damage Want to know more?
   

Life Cycle

Drawing of life cycle
Egg Oval, orange red eggs are laid in fluted white egg sacs Egg sac is attached to the female
300 400 eggs per sac
 
Immature stages Crawlers have red bodies with black legs and antennae

Crawlers remain inside the ovisac for the first few days

  • 3 instar nymphs
Crawlers settle on leaf veins or on young wood

Then they secrete a yellowish-white wax covering

Adult female Adults often settle on older wood

Seldom occur on the fruit

The egg sac grows from the posterior margin of the adult female body
 

Population primarily protandric hermaphrodites (females only)
Male Males are uncommon

Microscopically small

Males are winged thus able to fly

Reddish brown body with a well developed pair of grey wings

Seasonal Cycle in Vaalharts

Graph
Gradually increase throughout the growing season and peaks towards the end of the season
  • Multivoltine : 3 generations per year

 

Top Check Your Diagnosis Data Sheet Natural Enemies Management
    DAMAGE SYMPTOMS   MONITOR
    LIFE CYCLE   ECONOMIC THRESHOLD
    SEASONAL CYCLE   CONTROL OPTIONS
        CHECK POINTS

 

Natural Enemies

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Top Check Your Diagnosis Data Sheet Natural Enemies Management
    DAMAGE SYMPTOMS   MONITOR
    LIFE CYCLE   ECONOMIC THRESHOLD
    SEASONAL CYCLE   CONTROL OPTIONS
        CHECK POINTS

Management

 
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