Integrated Pest Management

Brown leafhopper
HEMIPTERA: CICADELLIDAE: Penthimiola bella

Top Check Your Diagnosis Data Sheet Natural Enemies Management
    DAMAGE SYMPTOMS   MONITOR
    LIFE CYCLE   ECONOMIC THRESHOLD
    SEASONAL CYCLE   CONTROL OPTIONS
        CHECK POINTS

Identification

Photo

 

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  • Insect 1 mm long

  • Flying insect hops if disturbed

  • Mottled wings with paler markings

Photo

 

Top Check Your Diagnosis Data Sheet Natural Enemies Management
    DAMAGE SYMPTOMS   MONITOR
    LIFE CYCLE   ECONOMIC THRESHOLD
    SEASONAL CYCLE   CONTROL OPTIONS
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Data Sheet

Damage Symptoms

on fruit

PHOTO

on leaves

Photo

on blossom

 

on twigs

 

1. On Fruit

Feeding damage

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  • Causes chlorotic spots on the fruit surface

  • Feeding damage happen in December and January.

  • 90% of the spots caused by brown leafhopper disappear towards harvest

  • Injury by brown leafhopper usually when fruit are green
     

2. On Leaves

Feeding damage

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  • Blotchy yellow discoloration

  • Leaves are uneven

 

3. On Blossoms

NONE

4. On Twigs

NONE

Life Cycle

  • Plant feeders

  • Pierce sucking mouth parts = suck sap from leaves and fruit cells

  • Gradual metamorphosis = nymphs resemble the adult

Photo of adult

Drawing of life cycle

r- strategist

  • rapid increase in pest populations

  • can rebound quickly after catastrophe (chemical spray)

Egg

Laid through a minute slit made in the leaf or fruit

Five nymphal stages

 

Adult

  • 3,0 3,9 mm in length

  • Found on the cooler southern side or citrus trees

Seasonal Cycle in Vaalharts

  • Damage between December to January

Graph

  •  Multivoltine: several generations per year

 

Top Check Your Diagnosis Data Sheet Natural Enemies Management
    DAMAGE SYMPTOMS   MONITOR
    LIFE CYCLE   ECONOMIC THRESHOLD
    SEASONAL CYCLE   CONTROL OPTIONS
        CHECK POINTS

 

Natural Enemies

Photo

Photo

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Top Check Your Diagnosis Data Sheet Natural Enemies Management
    DAMAGE SYMPTOMS   MONITOR
    LIFE CYCLE   ECONOMIC THRESHOLD
    SEASONAL CYCLE   CONTROL OPTIONS
        CHECK POINTS

Management

 
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